AL Design Journal

AL Design Journal

Exploring Best of the Brutalist Architecture in 2023

Welcome to a captivating journey through the enigmatic realm of Brutalist architecture in the year 2023.

This distinctive architectural style, characterized by its raw, exposed concrete structures, has captivated the world with its robust and unapologetic presence.

Brutalist Architecture

In this exploration, we will delve into the essence of Brutalism, unveiling its definition, origins, key features, and influential architects and movements that have shaped its evolution.

Brutalism, emerging in the mid-20th century, derives its name from the French term “béton brut,” meaning “raw concrete.”

It embraces an aesthetic that celebrates the materiality and authenticity of concrete, showcasing its innate strength and solidity.

Originally rooted in the post-war era, Brutalism sought to reflect the functional aspects of buildings while emphasizing a sense of social purpose and civic responsibility.

Key features and characteristics define the Brutalist architectural style. These include the prominent use of exposed concrete, geometric forms, massive scale, and a focus on structural honesty.

Unadorned and often imposing, Brutalist structures possess a distinct visual impact, provoking strong reactions and sparking debates about their beauty and significance.

Within the realm of Brutalism, several influential architects and movements have left an indelible mark on its trajectory.

Architects like Le Corbusier, with his iconic Unité d’Habitation in Marseille, and Paul Rudolph, known for his innovative Yale Art and Architecture Building, have played pivotal roles in shaping the movement.

Moreover, architectural movements such as the New Brutalism in the United Kingdom and the Brutalist resurgence in contemporary design have demonstrated the ongoing influence of this unique style.

As we embark on this exploration of Brutalism architecture in 2023, prepare to be mesmerized by its striking forms, unyielding materiality, and thought-provoking essence.

So, Join us as we uncover the rich history, intricate design principles, and enduring legacy of Brutalism in the modern architectural landscape.

The Rise of Brutalism Architecture


The Rise of Brutalism Architecture can be attributed to the unique circumstances of the post-war era.

As societies sought to rebuild and promote social ideals, a need for robust and functional structures arose.

Brutalism emerged as a response to the sleekness and ornamentation of modernism, emphasizing a raw and honest aesthetic.

Its bold use of exposed concrete and geometric forms reflected a desire for authenticity and solidity.

The movement quickly spread globally, adapting to different cultural and regional contexts, resulting in diverse variations of Brutalist architecture.

From the United States to Europe, Asia to Australia, each region contributed its own interpretation, adding richness and complexity to the evolving landscape of Brutalism.

Unveiling Brutalism’s Design Principles

Brutalism’s Design Principles allow us to appreciate the unique characteristics that define this architectural style.

Bold forms and massing are integral to Brutalism, with buildings often featuring striking geometric shapes that command attention.

The raw concrete aesthetics, with its exposed and untreated surfaces, convey a sense of authenticity and material honesty. Furthermore, Brutalism places great emphasis on the integration of functionality and structural expression.

These structures are designed to serve their purpose efficiently while showcasing the structural elements that support them.

The marriage of form and function in Brutalist architecture creates a compelling visual language that celebrates the inherent beauty of the robust and utilitarian design.

Iconic Brutalist Buildings around the World

Welcome to a captivating journey through the world of Brutalist architecture, as we explore some of the most iconic Brutalist buildings around the globe.

From towering concrete structures to awe-inspiring designs, join us as we discover the extraordinary landmarks that have left an indelible mark on the architectural landscape.

The Barbican Estate – London, UK

Architects: Chamberlin, Powell and Bon Architects
Area: 160000 m²
Year: 1976
Photographs: Joas Souza

01 33

During the peak of World War II on December 29, 1940, the Luftwaffe carried out an air raid that completely destroyed a 35-acre site known as the Barbican in the City of London.

The Barbican, named after the Roman wall that once stood in the area, was a historic site.

Following the war, the City of London Corporation, the governing body for the area, began exploring ways to rejuvenate this significant location.

Despite the interest of commercial developers due to its prime location in the financial centre of London, various office projects were rejected by the Corporation due to the declining population in the area.

By 1951, the number of residents had dropped to just over 5,000 from 100,000 in 1851.

To address the declining population and maintain its political influence, the City of London Corporation considered a housing scheme proposed by Chamberlin, Powell, and Bon in 1955.

This scheme aimed to attract new residents to the vacant area in the City and secure the Corporation’s parliamentary representation.

However, compared to commercial developments, the housing scheme offered lower revenue potential.

To make the project financially viable, the architects proposed a high-density development targeting individuals with moderate to high incomes.

The design of the Barbican complex embraced the concept of an urban microcosm, with residential blocks arranged around communal spaces, inspired by Le Corbusier’s work.

Le Corbusier’s vision of a “vertical garden city” was evident in both the Golden Lane Estate and the Barbican.

The residential blocks collectively represent one of the world’s most remarkable examples of Brutalist architecture.

The term “Brutalism” originates from the French phrase béton brut, meaning raw or unfinished concrete.

Although the concrete at the Barbican Estate was intentionally exposed, it was not unfinished but rather given a rough, rusticated appearance to convey a sense of monumentality.

02 9

The estate consists of three tower blocks, thirteen terrace blocks, two “mews” (small two-story houses), and a row of townhouses.

The tower blocks dominate the skyline, featuring a grid pattern of concrete panels.

The vertical lines of the grid break the horizontal elements, emphasizing the height of the towers.

The terrace blocks, on the other hand, are horizontally oriented, creating a dynamic contrast to the soaring towers.

The layout of the apartments within both tower and terrace blocks was designed to maximize natural light in the rooms that would benefit most from it.

Consequently, bedrooms, dining rooms, and living rooms were positioned along external walls, while kitchens and bathrooms were placed against inner walls.

Pedestrian circulation within the estate is facilitated by two systems: the high walk and the podium.

The high walk comprises bridges and narrow walkways that traverse the entire estate, while the podium acts as a raised platform, essentially becoming a new ground level once inside the estate’s boundaries.

03 8

This design feature allows the Barbican to be completely pedestrianized, with road and rail traffic passing beneath unnoticed.

The tower blocks and most of the terrace blocks stand above the podium on pilotis, creating unobstructed pedestrian pathways.

Particularly notable is the area beneath Gilbert House, a terrace block spanning the lake that bisects the podium.

The height of the columns enables the high walk to pass beneath the main structure, with a bridge nestled among the supporting colonnade.

The combination of the podium and high walk fosters an open and airy environment, encouraging movement and exploration throughout the estate.

While developing the design for the Barbican, Chamberlin, Powell, and Bon extensively sought architectural inspiration from their travels abroad, particularly in Italy.

Bon, having worked in Milan earlier in his career, held a strong fascination for Italian architecture, which is evident in the estate. For example, the penthouses of the terrace block features.

National Theatre – Belgrade, Serbia

Established in the latter part of the 19th century, the National Theatre is situated at the intersection of Vasina and Francuska Street on Republic Square.

04 7

The construction of this building, along with the implementation of the 1867 Regulations Plan of Town in Trench by Josimović, laid the foundation for the development of the present-day main Republic Square in Belgrade.

Erected in 1868, the National Theatre has witnessed various stages of architectural and artistic evolution, persevering as a symbol of Serbian culture, tradition, and spirituality.

Today, it houses three artistic ensembles: opera, ballet, and drama. Designated as a Monument of Culture of Great Importance in 1983, the National Theatre is safeguarded by the Republic of Serbia.

While some preliminary work had commenced, the prince did not live to see the completion of the full construction. Tragically, he was assassinated in Košutnjak on June 10, 1868, and his successor, Prince Milan, laid the foundation stone on August 31 [O.S. 19 August], 1868.

On that day, the Metropolitanate of Belgrade’s Mihailo Jovanović consecrated the foundations. A memorial charter, inscribed with the following words: “In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit!

This home, intended for the Serbian National Theater in Belgrade, the first stage in the Serbian capital city, is being built thanks to the will and significant monetary support from the Serbian prince Mihailo M. Obrenović III, who was assassinated by the villains in Topčider’s Košutnjak on May 29, 1868.

The foundation was laid by the Serbian prince Milan M. Obrenović IV, and consecrated and blessed in the church ceremony by the Archbishop of Belgrade and Metropolitan of all Serbia Mihailo, on the 19th day of August 1868.” was signed by Prince Milan and his regents and incorporated into the building’s foundations.

The construction was completed the following January, and the ceremonial opening took place on November 12, 1869.

05 6

The edifice was constructed on the site where the former Stambol Gate once stood. The theatrical company moved into the new building in 1869, and alterations and expansions began as early as the following year.

In 1870, the relatively small stage was enhanced and extended. Notably, the renowned 1888 Constitution was adopted in this building during the Great Constitutional Assembly.

Architect Aleksandar Bugarski, the most prolific architect of 19th-century Belgrade, designed the National Theatre.

Reflecting the architectural style of the time, the building exhibited a Renaissance conception and decorative elements, bearing resemblance to Milan’s La Scala.

Aside from theatrical performances, the hall was also utilized for charity balls and concerts throughout the 19th century.

Performance Facilities: The National Theatre Belgrade comprises two halls for performing arts.

  1. Main Stage: The Grand Hall features three levels. The ground level accommodates a total of 219 seats, with the front seats being the most expensive. The theatre includes three balconies, with the first one being the priciest. The Grand Hall is used for large-scale operas, dramas, and ballets.
  2. Raša Plaović Stage: With a seating capacity of 281 and no balconies, the Raša Plaović Stage is smaller and less ornate than the Grand Hall. It hosts smaller-scale drama performances.

Boston City Hall – Boston, USA

In 1962, during an international competition for the design of Boston’s City Hall, three professors from Columbia University, Kallmann, McKinnell & Knowles, deviated from the prevailing demand for sleek glass and steel structures.

06 6

Rather than focusing solely on material aesthetics, their aim was to emphasize the connection between the government building and the public sphere.

The result was the completion of the City Hall in 1968, an embodiment of the Brutalist architectural style that bridged the gap between the public and private sectors of government.

Through a gradient of reveal and exposure, the City Hall allowed the public to integrate, either physically or visually, into the daily affairs of the governmental process.

In contrast to the modernist designs prevalent in the United States and Europe at the time, which often incorporated glass and steel, Kallmann, McKinnell, and Knowles opted for rough beton-brut concrete.

They sought an architecture that engaged with its social, cultural, and political context, allowing for a comprehensive understanding of the design, both programmatically and in terms of construction methods.

The outcome was a concrete, tripartite design that stratified the public and administrative aspects of the City Hall.The City Hall is divided into three main entities that comprise the overall system.

This division, both volumetrically and programmatically, separates public and privatized spaces, emphasizing the transition as the building tapers into a cantilevering system.

08 6

The more private aspects of the city government are directly related to this tapering section.

From the street, a spacious open plaza serves as a buffer between the main entrance of the City Hall and the outside.

The plaza, envisioned by Kallmann, McKinnell, and Knowles as an extension of the building’s main floor, subtly transitions from brick pavement to the lobby’s quarry tile.

This transition serves to establish a connection between the public sector and the day-to-day affairs of the government.

Moving further out, the building adopts a standardized, bureaucratic façade system, directly reflecting the work taking place within.

At the uppermost floors, where the mayor’s office is located, the façade system takes on a monolithic scale, resembling an ancient triglyph that encircles the building’s perimeter.

At the heart of the building, the strict façade system is intentionally broken and articulated, revealing moments within the building to those in the plaza.

These protrusions and breaks in the façade serve as visual connections, allowing the public to witness the daily activities within the mayor’s office.

07 6

This interplay between juxtaposition and spatial protrusions continually recreates the relationship between the government and the people, fostering a constant connection, either physical or visual.

Since its completion, the Boston City Hall has received mixed reviews from Boston’s citizens, architects, and even the mayors.

In 2006, the mayor filed a petition to demolish the building in favour of a more aesthetically pleasing and efficient structure.

However, a group of activists succeeded in obtaining special landmark status for the City Hall, preventing any future modifications until it can be granted full landmark status.

Habitat 67 – Montreal, Canada

Habitat 67, originally designed by Moshe Safdie as the Canadian Pavilion for the 1967 World Exposition, aimed to provide an experimental solution for high-quality housing in dense urban areas.

09 4

Safdie envisioned a new housing typology that combined the advantages of suburban homes with the verticality of urban high-rises, using prefabricated modular units to reduce costs.

Describing the project’s significance, Safdie explained that Habitat 67 encompassed two main ideas: Prefabrication and reimagining apartment building design in a new paradigm.

The project originated from Safdie’s thesis, titled “A Case for City Living,” during his time at McGill University in 1961.

Two years later, while interning in Louis Kahn’s studio, Safdie’s thesis advisor invited him to submit the project for the World Exposition.

Safdie expanded his theories into a comprehensive master plan that included shopping centres, a school, and 1000 housing units. However, the Canadian government scaled back the project to only 158 residential units, despite Safdie’s young age.

11 4

Habitat 67 comprised 354 identical prefabricated modules, or “boxes,” which were stacked and connected by steel cables in various configurations.

The apartments varied in shape and size, formed by combining one to four of these 600 square-foot boxes.

Each apartment had pedestrian streets, bridges, and three vertical cores of elevators for access to the upper floors.

Service and parking facilities were separated from the residents’ circulation routes on the ground floor.

The on-site prefabrication process involved the construction of 90-ton boxes.

These boxes were moulded in a reinforced steel cage measuring 38 x 17 feet.

After curing, the concrete boxes were transferred to an assembly line, where electrical and mechanical systems, insulation, and windows were installed.

Modular kitchens and bathrooms were then added, and each unit was lifted into position by a crane.

Although the on-site prefabrication aimed to reduce production costs, the project’s scaled-down nature resulted in higher-than-expected expenses.

Nevertheless, Habitat 67 introduced an innovative housing typology that was adaptable to the site. By stacking concrete boxes in different configurations, Safdie broke away from the traditional orthogonal form of high-rises.

10 4

This approach created roof gardens, ensured a constant flow of fresh air, and maximized natural light for each apartment—an unprecedented quality for a twelve-story complex.

Habitat 67 pioneered the integration of two housing typologies: the suburban garden home and the economical high-rise apartment building.

Following the World Exposition, similar Habitat projects were constructed worldwide, including in New York (1967), Puerto Rico (1968), Israel (1969), Rochester (1971), and Tehran (1976).

Unlike most World’s Fair pavilions that are disassembled after the event, Habitat 67 retained its original purpose and continues to serve as a successful housing complex.

Like other iconic structures from large exhibitions, such as The Crystal Palace and the Eiffel Tower, Habitat 67 has surpassed its intended lifespan and remains an emblem of its era.

12 1

Not only was Habitat 67 revolutionary in its time, but it also continued to influence architecture in subsequent decades.

The spatial scheme can be seen in Ricardo Boffil’s Kafka Castle (1968), although whether Boffil influenced Safdie or vice versa remains a topic of debate.

Habitat’s prefabrication technique was later applied in Kisho Kurokawa’s Nakagin Capsule Tower (1972), and one could argue that BIG’s Mountain Dwelling draws inspiration from Safdie’s design strategy.

The National Museum of Western Art – Tokyo, Japan

The National Western Art Museum (NMWA) is the leading public art gallery in Japan that focuses on Western art. It is situated within the museum and zoo complex in Ueno Park, in the central Tokyo district of Taitō.

13 1

The Main Building, designed by the renowned Swiss-French architect Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, better known as Le Corbusier, stands as the sole representative example of his work in the Far East.

Its opening was lauded by The New York Times, which praised the building’s “artistic significance and beauty” that rivalled the masterpieces housed within.

Completed in March 1959, the multi-story reinforced concrete structure symbolized the restoration of diplomatic ties between Japan and France following World War II.

The museum was established to exhibit the collection amassed by the industrialist Kōjirō Matsukata between 1920 and 1923.

The collection remained in England and France until after the war, when the Japanese government requested its return.

France, stipulating that a French architect should design the museum, obliged, and the works were brought back to Japan. Le Corbusier was chosen for the task. Le Corbusier developed a master plan that encompassed the museum’s surroundings.

However, the final design far exceeded the original requirements, leading to the removal of elements such as the library, a small lecture hall, and a room for distinguished guests. These elements remained on the plans as a guide for future expansions.

As part of the project, Le Corbusier enlisted three Japanese apprentices, Kunio Maekawa, Junzo Sakakura, and Takamasa Yoshizaka, to develop detailed drawings and oversee construction.

The museum has a square plan, with the main gallery area raised on a piloti to the first floor. The layout drew inspiration from Le Corbusier’s Sanskar Kendra museum in Ahmedabad, which was being designed concurrently.

Visitors enter the museum at ground floor level through the 19th Century Hall, a double-height space illuminated by a pyramidal skylight intersected with reinforced concrete beams and a column. Across from the entrance, a ramp leads to the painting gallery, offering better views of Rodin’s sculptures.

The paintings gallery wraps around the 19th Century Hall, with the ceiling initially low but rising to two stories along the perimeter to showcase the artworks.

Balconies at this level extend into the 19th Century Hall, redirecting visitors. Natural daylight was originally intended to illuminate the paintings gallery through four lighting troughs, but artificial lighting is now used instead.

Externally, the building features prefabricated concrete panels supported by U-shaped frames attached to the inner wall. Reinforced concrete is the primary construction material, and the columns have a smooth concrete finish.

After more than two years of construction, the museum officially opened on June 10, 1959.

Le Corbusier’s modular system, developed after years of research, is a framework that brings order to the infinite possibilities of architectural proportions, much like a musical scale organizes musical pitches.

Rooted in the size and proportions of the human body, it harmonizes architecture with the human spirit. In the Museum of Western Art, the modular system is observed in structural elements, architectural details, and furnishings.

Over the years, various additions have been made to the building. Sakakura Associates designed a lecture hall and office building in 1964, as well as a ticket office in 1984.

Maekawa Associates contributed a new annexe in 1979. In 1998, in collaboration with the Ministry of Construction, Yokoyama Engineering, and Shimizu Construction, earthquake-resistant foundations were installed in the museum.

Controversies and Criticisms

Controversies and criticisms have surrounded Brutalism, reflecting its polarizing reception. While some admire its raw aesthetic and bold architectural statements, others find it oppressive and austere.

One recurring challenge is the maintenance and durability of Brutalist structures, as their exposed concrete surfaces require frequent upkeep and can be susceptible to weathering.

Moreover, the imposing presence of Brutalist buildings has sparked debates about their impact on urban landscapes. Critics argue that their scale and mass can overwhelm their surroundings, disrupting the harmony of cityscapes.

Despite these controversies, Brutalism’s distinctive style continues to provoke dialogue and shape the architectural discourse.

Conclusion: Brutalism

In conclusion, Brutalism stands as a unique and controversial architectural movement that has left a lasting impact on the built environment.

Its distinctive use of raw concrete and bold geometric forms has polarized opinions, evoking strong reactions from both admirers and critics.


‘While some praise Brutalism for its uncompromising expression of architectural honesty and social ideals, others condemn it as cold, imposing, and out of touch with human needs.

One of the key controversies surrounding Brutalism lies in its reception.

The movement has sparked passionate debates about its aesthetic appeal and its compatibility with the surrounding urban landscapes.

The imposing scale and mass of Brutalist structures have often been seen as disruptive, challenging the conventional notions of architectural harmony.

Yet, these very characteristics have also given Brutalism a sense of architectural power and presence that cannot be easily ignored.

Another issue that Brutalism has faced is the challenge of maintenance and durability. The exposed concrete surfaces that define Brutalist buildings require regular upkeep, as they are prone to weathering and deterioration.

The cost and effort involved in preserving these structures have been points of contention, leading to debates about their long-term viability.

Despite the controversies and criticisms, Brutalism has left an indelible mark on the urban fabric of many cities. Its influence can be seen in the works of subsequent architects who have embraced its principles or responded to its challenges.

The movement’s bold experimentation and rejection of traditional architectural norms have pushed the boundaries of design and sparked important discussions about the relationship between architecture, society, and the built environment.

In the end, whether one embraces or rejects Brutalism, it remains an important chapter in the history of architecture. Its striking visual language and provocative designs continue to captivate, challenge, and shape our understanding of the built environment.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Why is Brutalism called “Brutalism”?

Brutalism derives its name from the French term “béton brut,” which translates to “raw concrete.” The term was coined by the Swiss-French architect Le Corbusier, one of the pioneers of the movement, and it reflects the prominent use of exposed concrete in Brutalist architecture.

The name “Brutalism” does not imply a connection to brutality in the sense of violence or aggression. Rather, it refers to the raw and honest expression of materials, specifically concrete, which became a defining characteristic of the architectural style.

Brutalist buildings often feature unadorned, rough-textured concrete surfaces, showcasing the material’s natural qualities and structural integrity.

The term “Brutalism” gained prominence in the 1950s and 1960s, when the movement was at its peak. Architects like Le Corbusier, Paul Rudolph, Alison and Peter Smithson embraced this architectural approach, emphasizing the use of concrete as an honest and expressive material.

Although the name “Brutalism” may evoke negative connotations due to its similarity to the word “brutality,” it is important to understand that the term was chosen for its association with rawness and authenticity rather than violence.

Brutalism represents a departure from decorative and ornamental architecture, focusing instead on the intrinsic qualities of the materials used, particularly concrete, and the honest expression of structural forms.

Are all Brutalist buildings made of concrete?

While concrete is a defining feature of Brutalist architecture, not all Brutalist buildings are exclusively made of concrete.

While the concrete was commonly used due to its durability, versatility, and ability to create large, sculptural forms, other materials were also incorporated into Brutalist designs.

Brutalist buildings often showcase raw, exposed concrete surfaces as a prominent aesthetic element.

However, other materials such as brick, steel, glass, and timber could be integrated alongside or in combination with concrete.

These additional materials were sometimes used for functional or decorative purposes, providing contrast or enhancing specific architectural features.

The use of materials other than concrete in Brutalist buildings allowed architects to add variety and texture to the overall design.

For instance, some buildings incorporated brickwork to create patterns or distinctive facades, while others incorporated steel elements for structural support or to create intricate details.

The key characteristic of Brutalism lies in the bold and expressive use of materials, prioritizing their inherent qualities and structural honesty.

While concrete is prevalent, it is not a strict requirement for a building to be considered Brutalist. The movement encompasses a range of architectural expressions that share a common ethos of utilitarianism, massiveness, and an emphasis on the raw and unembellished.

Is Brutalist architecture still being built today?

Yes, Brutalist architecture continues to be built today, although its popularity has varied over time.

While the peak of the Brutalist movement was in the mid-20th century, with many iconic structures constructed during that period, the style has seen periods of decline and resurgence.

In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in Brutalist architecture, with contemporary architects drawing inspiration from its distinctive aesthetic and principles.

While new constructions may not strictly adhere to the exact style of Brutalism from the mid-20th century, they often incorporate elements and influences that evoke the Brutalist spirit.

Contemporary architects are exploring the use of concrete and other robust materials, creating bold and expressive forms, and prioritizing functionality and honest design.

These new interpretations of Brutalism often blend with contemporary architectural trends, incorporating sustainable features, innovative construction techniques, and a focus on user experience.

Additionally, some original Brutalist buildings are being preserved and adapted for new uses, demonstrating a growing appreciation for their architectural and historical significance.

Adaptive reuse projects have transformed former Brutalist structures into residential complexes, cultural institutions, or mixed-use developments, ensuring their continued relevance in the urban fabric.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top